A Solar Eclipse occurs when an observe passes through the shadow cast by the Moon Which fully partially blocks the the Sun. This can only happen when the Sun , Moon and Earth are nearly aligned on a straight line in three dimension during a new Moon , When the is close to ecliptic plane . In a total eclipse Sun is fully obscured by the Moon. In Partial and Annular eclipse only part of the Sun is obscured. If the Moon where in a perfectly circular Orbit. A little closer to the Earth and the same orbit plane, there would be total solar eclipses every new Moon. The Moon orbit is titled at more than 5 degrees to the Earth’s orbit around enough to the ecliptic plane during a new Moon .Solar Eclipse each year no more than two of which can be total Eclipse.
Total eclipses are rare because the timing of the new Moon within the eclipse season needs to be more exact for an alignment between the observer and the center of the Moon and Sun.The elliptical orbit of the Moon often takes it far enough away from Earth that is apparent is size is not large enough to block the Sun entirely.
Total solar eclipses are rare at any particular location because totality exits along a narrow path on the Earth’s surface traced by the Moon’s full shadow or umbra. An eclipses is an natural phenomenon. In some ancient and modern cultures ,solar eclipses were attributed to supernatural cause or regarded as bad omens .
A total solar eclipses can be fighting to people who are unaware of its astronomical explanation as the sun seem to disappear during the day and the sky darkens is a matter of minutes.
Since looking directly at the sun can lead to permanent eye damage or blindness , special eye protection or indirect viewing techniques are used when viewing a solar eclipse . It is techniques safe to view only the total phase of a total solar eclipse with the unaided eye and without protection